Deterrence policy in the Cold War was mostly driven by the threat coming from nuclear missiles. Since the dawn of the nuclear ballistic missile era consecutively missile defense efforts were taken to provide for Safeguard and Sentinel systems under Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon. At the same time Soviet Union was ready to develop short and medium range missile defense protecting Moscow by deploying nuclear warheads as missile defense. Similar systems on the U.S. side (Nike-Hercules) were used to protect allies, such as South Korea. Since 1976 Patriot short range air and missile defense gradually brought theatre missile protection on the battlefield. Its early use in Kuwait war was highly controversial. Quickly refurbished from air defense capacities to counter Iraqi Scud, PAC were not easy to evaluate as an interception assett. Until today, no clear undertanding of combat missile defense was given, despite additional data coming from Iraq war 2003, Israeli Iron Dome Operation or PAC-3 engagements during the Yemen war. For Poland and Romania, PAC-3 purchase and Aegis Ashore bases became key security assetts. Similarly, THAAD deployment in South Korea contributed to the end of North Korean nuclear and missile crisis in 2018.
- Teacher: Grzegorz Nycz